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The status quo, problems and development prospects of natural gas power generation in China


The status quo, problems and development prospects of natural gas power generation in China

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Compared with coal-fired power generation, natural gas power generation has multiple advantages. Gas-fired power generation emits almost no SO2 and soot, and its nitrogen oxide emissions are only 1/10 of that of coal-fired power generation, which has high environmental value. In addition, the gas unit is flexible in starting and stopping, which is convenient for peak shaving of the power grid, and the gas power plant has a small footprint and can be powered locally at the urban load center. With the rapid development of China's natural gas industry and the increasing demand for environmental protection in the construction of “beautiful China” across the country, the installed capacity of gas-fired power generation in China has increased to 43.09 million kW in 2013, and the proportion of gas generated by power generation to total natural gas consumption is about 18%. .
China's natural gas power generation industry is in its infancy, but it is facing many serious problems. The profitability of gas-fired power plants has been poor. The cost pressures of the two natural gas prices in 2013 and 2014 have further increased. Some investors have a wait-and-see attitude or It is planned to delay the project to be put into production, which is not conducive to the healthy development of China's gas power generation industry and natural gas industry.
Development status of China's natural gas power generation industry
1 Natural gas power generation installed capacity and distribution
Since the new century, China's gas power generation industry has developed rapidly. By the end of 2013, the installed capacity of gas-fired power generation was 43.09 million kW, accounting for 3.5% of the total installed capacity of power generation; the installed capacity of coal-fired power was 786.21 million kW, accounting for 63% of the total installed capacity; hydropower accounted for 22.5% of the total installed capacity; other types of installed power For nuclear power, wind power and solar power generation.
China's natural gas power plants are mainly distributed in economically developed provinces and cities such as the Yangtze River Delta and Southeast Coast. There are also some gas-fired power plants in the Beijing-Tianjin region and the Central-South region. In addition, there are a small number of self-contained gas-fired power plants around the oil and gas fields in the western region. The installed capacity of gas-fired power plants in Guangdong, Fujian and Hainan provinces reached 17.5 million kW, accounting for 34% of the total gas installed capacity in the country; the gas-fired power plants in the three provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai accounted for about 32%; the Beijing-Tianjin region accounted for about 23%. In the past two years, with the increasing pressure on environmental protection in various parts of China, gas-fired power plants have been put into operation in Shanxi, Ningxia, Chongqing and other places. Gas-fired power plants are more widely distributed. It is expected that the installed capacity of gas-fired power generation will exceed 50 million kW in 2014.
2 China's natural gas power generation industry market operation model
The upstream and downstream industrial chain of China's natural gas power generation industry is mainly composed of three types of entities. The upstream natural gas supply includes domestic oil companies and city gas companies. The power generation company is responsible for the investment operation of the gas power plant. It purchases natural gas from the upstream gas supplier and converts it into electricity, and sells it to the downstream grid company according to the on-grid price.
At present, China's natural gas power plant operating entities are divided into three categories: the first category is the state-owned large-scale power generation central enterprises represented by Huadian Group, Huaneng Group, China Power Investment Group, etc. The second category is the provincial power investment group controlled by local governments. Energy groups, such as Zhejiang Energy Group, Shenergy Group, Jingneng Group, etc.; the third category is oil and gas production and supply companies, such as China National Offshore Oil and Gas Group. In order to facilitate the use of their respective advantages and complement each other, gas-fired power plants are mostly joint ventures.
3 China's gas power generation project on-grid price
At present, the on-grid price of gas-fired power generation in China is determined by the local price authorities and reported to the National Development and Reform Commission for approval. The on-grid tariffs of gas turbine power plants vary from region to region, and the main pricing methods include two-part electricity prices and single pricing. The two-part electricity price is represented by Shanghai and has been implemented since 2012. The specific method is to divide the on-grid price into capacity electricity price and electricity price. The electricity price is 0.504 yuan/kWh, and the capacity price is arranged according to the annual use of 2500h. The electricity price compensation standard is 0.22 yuan/kWh. It is used to compensate the peak power generation of gas power plants in the operation of the power grid. For the 9E unit series, the on-grid electricity price within 500 hours of annual power generation is 0.554 yuan/kWh.
Except for Shanghai, gas power plants in other regions of China generally implement a single price. Power plants in some provinces and cities have similar gas sources, gas prices are relatively close, and on-grid electricity prices are relatively uniform. For example, the on-grid electricity price of gas turbines in Henan Province is about 0.55 yuan / kWh. The on-grid price of the peak-shaving power plant in Jiangsu Province from the West-East Gas Transmission is 0.581 yuan/kWh, and the on-grid price of the thermal power plant is 0.605~0.656 yuan/kWh. There are many gas-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. However, due to the diversification of gas sources and the difference in gas prices, the pricing method of one plant and one price is mainly implemented, with a minimum of 0.533 yuan/kWh and a maximum of 1.1 yuan/kWh.
The development of the on-grid price can be roughly divided into the following three categories:
The first is to establish a temporary feed-in tariff based on the cost plus method. It is mainly a batch of 9F units that use Guangdong Dapeng Australia to import liquefied natural gas. The unified on-grid price of the implementation is 0.553 yuan/kWh.
Second, the temporary on-grid tariff approved by the state is 0.72 yuan/kWh. The main implementation of this price is the state-approved gas units.
The third is to use the benchmark price of coal-fired units plus subsidies. At present, some 9E units in Guangdong Province have no formal government approval price, only temporary settlement of electricity prices, the grid company according to the benchmark price of coal-fired units 0.5042 yuan / kWh settlement, the government subsidizes the insufficient part.
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